Our third discussion asks: “Are We Alone?” a question that has been shared by every sentient human, dating back to the early hominids who saw a distant campfire at night and wondered who was over there in the darkness. Today, we still look at the stars with the same sense of wonder, even if we know much more about them than our ancestors did. Thanks to scientific exploration, we are on the verge of answering that most-profound question of human consciousness. This session will inform and illuminate the scientific methods for robust detection of simple and complex life elsewhere in the universe.